Cupping and IASTM

Cupping Sets
Cupping set from Amazon
Cupping set from ETD INC.

IASTM - Stainless Steel
Hawk Grip 
Rock Blade
Heskiers OneTool
Great china herbs centre in Toronto

Standards of practice specific to Cupping and IASTM
Registrants using IASTM and cupping are encouraged to review the CMTO Policy on the Application of Complementary Modalities (found here)
• CMTO Standard of Practice
• Standards for Specific Additional Massage Therapy Techniques
• Communication/Public Health Standard 7 
• Communication/Public Health Standard 10
Example of Informed Consent 
• Infection Control Guidelines

Knowledge Translation

In addition to the in person course, participants are provided with continuing education resources, this may include reading the following four papers.
• What effect can manual therapy have on a patient's pain experience?
• Muscle injuries and strategies for improving their repair
• Myofascial Trigger Points Then and Now
• Understanding Mechanobiology

Knowledge Translation - Learn From The Experts
• Thomas Best. Massage Therapies - From Lab Bench Top to The Patients 
• Body in Mind. Isometrics reduce tendon pain 
• Body in Mind. Classification of patients with low back-related leg pain
• Noi Group. Mobilisation of the Neuroimmune System
• Paul Ingraham. Trigger Point Doubts 
• Greg Lehman. Tissue changes and Pain
• Greg Lehman. If you want to stretch your hamstrings please continue to do so
• Susan Chapelle Understanding and Approach to Treatment of Scars and Adhesion
• Lorimer Moseley. It is not just the brain that changes itself – time to embrace bioplasticity? 
• Tom Goom. Balancing training load and tissue capacity
• Alva Noë - Moving Toward Understanding Consciousness
• Todd Hargrove. Is Movement Therapy Rocket Science? 
• Jarod Hall. Tissue homeostasis and its role in exercise dosage

Setting the Groundwork for Evidence Based Massage
Guide to Reading Massage Therapy Research
The Integration of Current Research into Massage Therapy 
• How Massage Therapists can Contribute to Research 
• Peer Reviewed Resources for Massage Therapists
• Systematic Reviews for Massage Therapists
How To Evaluate A Scholarly Article (Powerpoint) 
If you are a massage therapist wanting to align yourself with physicians, now is the time!

Massage Therapy: Theories and Treatment Strategies
As the body of knowledge to support the use of massage therapy continues to grow, understanding the basic science behind what we do and the guiding principles of adaptability enable us to apply this work to a number of conditions including, but not limited to:
• Biopsychosocial Model of Massage Therapy
• Sports Related Aches and Pain
• Shoulder Injuries
• Carpal Tunnel Syndrome 
• Post-Operative Patients
• Compartment Syndrome
• Dupuytren's Disease
• Low Back Pain 
• Neck Pain
• Post-Concussion Syndrome 
• Temporomandibular Dysfunction (TMD)
• Scar Management 
• Traumatic Muscle Fibrosis 

Concussion Recognition Tool
• Notes from See The Line 2016 


Apostolopoulos, N., Metsios, G.S., ... Wyon, M.A. (2015). The relevance of stretch intensity and position-a systematic review. Front Psychol.

Arvinen-Barrow, M., Massey, W.V., Hemmings, B. (2014). Role of sport medicine professionals in addressing psychosocial aspects of sport-injury rehabilitation: professional athletes' views. J Athl Train.

Baselgia, L.T., Bennett, D.L., Silbiger, R.M., Schmid, A.B. (2017). Negative Neurodynamic Tests Do Not Exclude Neural Dysfunction in Patients With Entrapment Neuropathies. Arch Phys Med Rehabil.

Benjamin, M. (2009). The fascia of the limbs and back - a review. Journal of Anatomy.

Bialosky, J. E., Bishop, M. D., Price, D. D., Robinson, M. E., & George, S. Z. (2009). The mechanisms of manual therapy in the treatment of musculoskeletal pain: A comprehensive model. Manual Therapy.

Bijlard, E., Uiterwaal, L., ... Huygen, F.J. (2017). A Systematic Review on the Prevalence, Etiology, and Pathophysiology of Intrinsic Pain in Dermal Scar Tissue. Pain Physician.

Bishop, M. D., Torres-Cueco, R., Gay, C. W., Lluch-Girbés, E., Beneciuk, J. M., & Bialosky, J. E. (2015). What effect can manual therapy have on a patient's pain experience? Pain Management.

Bove, G.M., Harris, M.Y., Zhao, H., Barbe, M.F. (2016). Manual therapy as an effective treatment for fibrosis in a rat model of upper extremity overuse injury. J Neurol Sci.

Broderick, G., Craddock, T.J. (2013). Systems biology of complex symptom profiles: capturing interactivity across behavior, brain and immune regulation. Brain Behav Immun.

Bron, C., & Dommerholt, J. D. (2012). Etiology of Myofascial Trigger Points. Current Pain and Headache Reports.

Cooper, M. A., Kluding, P. M., & Wright, D. E. (2016). Emerging Relationships between Exercise, Sensory Nerves, and Neuropathic Pain. Frontiers in Neuroscience.

Cheatham, S.W., Lee, M., Cain, M., Baker, R. (2016). The efficacy of instrument assisted soft tissue mobilization: a systematic review. J Can Chiropr Assoc.

Clark, J.E., Fai Ng, W., Watson, S., Newton, J.L. (2016). The aetiopathogenesis of fatigue: unpredictable, complex and persistent. Br Med Bull.

D'alessandro, G., Cerritelli, F., & Cortelli, P. (2016). Sensitization and Interoception as Key Neurological Concepts in Osteopathy and Other Manual Medicines. Frontiers in Neuroscience.

Dong, Q., Jacobson, J.A., ... Kim, S.M. (2012). Entrapment neuropathies in the upper and lower limbs: anatomy and MRI features. Radiol Res Pract.

Ellingsen, D., Leknes, S., Løseth, G., Wessberg, J., & Olausson, H. (2016). The Neurobiology Shaping Affective Touch: Expectation, Motivation, and Meaning in the Multisensory Context. Frontiers in Psychology.

Gregory, N.S., Sluka, K.A. (2014). Anatomical and physiological factors contributing to chronic muscle pain. Curr Top Behav Neurosci.

Ingber, D. E., Wang, N., & Stamenović, D. (2014). Tensegrity, cellular biophysics, and the mechanics of living systems. Reports on Progress in Physics.

Laumonier, T., & Menetrey, J. (2016). Muscle injuries and strategies for improving their repair. Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics.

McCormack, J.R., Underwood, F.B., Slaven, E.J., Cappaert, T.A. (2016).  Eccentric Exercise Versus Eccentric Exercise and Soft Tissue Treatment (Astym) in the Management of Insertional Achilles Tendinopathy. Sports Health.

Mcpartland, J. M., Guy, G. W., & Marzo, V. D. (2014). Care and Feeding of the Endocannabinoid System: A Systematic Review of Potential Clinical Interventions that Upregulate the Endocannabinoid System. PLoS ONE.

Moraska, A.F., Hickner, R.C., Kohrt, W.M., Brewer, A. (2013). Changes in blood flow and cellular metabolism at a myofascial trigger point with trigger point release (ischemic compression): A proof-of-principle pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil.

Nencini, S., & Ivanusic, J. J. (2016). The Physiology of Bone Pain. How Much Do We Really Know? Frontiers in Physiology.

Newell, D., Lothe, L.R., Raven, T.J. (2017). Contextually Aided Recovery (CARe): a scientific theory for innate healing. Chiropr Man Therap.

Noakes, T.D. (2012). Fatigue is a Brain-Derived Emotion that Regulates the Exercise Behavior to Ensure the Protection of Whole Body Homeostasis. Front Physiol.

Pelletier, R., Higgins, J., & Bourbonnais, D. (2015). Is neuroplasticity in the central nervous system the missing link to our understanding of chronic musculoskeletal disorders? BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders.

Porr, J., Chrobak, K., Muir, B. (2013). Entrapment of the saphenous nerve at the adductor canal affecting the infrapatellar branch - a report on two cases. J Can Chiropr Assoc.

Rio, E., Kidgell, D., Moseley, G., Gaida, J., Docking, S., Purdam, C., & Cook, J. (2015). Tendon neuroplastic training: Changing the way we think about tendon rehabilitation: A narrative review. British Journal of Sports Medicine.

Schmid, A. B., Brunner, F., ... Coppieters, M. W. (2009). Reliability of clinical tests to evaluate nerve function and mechanosensitivity of the upper limb peripheral nervous system. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders.

Shah, J., Thaker, N., Heimur, J., Aredo, J., Sikdar, S., & Gerber, L. (2015). Myofascial Trigger Points Then and Now: A Historical and Scientific Perspective. PM&R.

Thompson, W. R., Scott, A., Loghmani, M. T., Ward, S. R., & Warden, S. J. (2016). Understanding Mechanobiology: Physical Therapists as a Force in Mechanotherapy and Musculoskeletal Regenerative Rehabilitation. Physical Therapy.

Van Der Wal, J. (2009). The Architecture of the Connective Tissue in the Musculoskeletal System - An Often Overlooked Functional Parameter as to Proprioception in the Locomotor Apparatus. International Journal of Therapeutic Massage & Bodywork: Research, Education, & Practice.

Vigotsky, A., & Bruhns R. (2015). The Role of Descending Modulation in Manual Therapy and Its Analgesic Implications: A Narrative Review. Pain Research and Treatment.

Waters-Banker, C., Dupont-Versteegden, E. E., Kitzman, P. H., & Butterfield, T. A. (2014). Investigating the Mechanisms of Massage Efficacy: The Role of Mechanical Immunomodulation. Journal of Athletic Training.

Woolf, C. (2011). Central sensitization: Implications for the diagnosis and treatment of pain. Pain.


Burns, S. (2015). Concussion Treatment Using Massage Techniques: A Case Study. International Journal of Therapeutic Massage & Bodywork: Research, Education, & Practice.

Chaibi, A., & Russell, M. (2014). Manual therapies for primary chronic headaches: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. The Journal of Headache and Pain.

Cook, A. J., Wellman, R. D., Cherkin, D. C., Kahn, J. R., & Sherman, K. J. (2015). Randomized clinical trial assessing whether additional massage treatments for chronic neck pain improve 12- and 26-week outcomes. The Spine Journal.

Shaffer, S.M., Brismée, J.M., Sizer, P.S., Courtney, C.A. (2014). Temporomandibular disorders. Part 1: anatomy and examination/diagnosis. J Man Manip Ther.

Shaffer, S.M., Brismée, J.M., Sizer, P.S., Courtney, C.A. (2014). Temporomandibular disorders. Part 2: conservative management. J Man Manip Ther.

Sherman, K. J., Cook, A. J., ... Cherkin, D. C. (2014). Five-Week Outcomes From a Dosing Trial of Therapeutic Massage for Chronic Neck Pain. The Annals of Family Medicine.

Moore, C.S., Sibbritt, D.W., Adams, J. (2017).  A critical review of manual therapy use for headache disorders: prevalence, profiles, motivations, communication and self-reported effectiveness. BMC Neurol.

Morin, M., Langevin, P., & Fait, P. (2016). Cervical Spine Involvement in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review. Journal of Sports Medicine.


Bachasson, D., Singh, A., ... Ward, S.R. (2015). The role of the peripheral and central nervous systems in rotator cuff disease. J Shoulder Elbow Surg.

Gismervik, S.Ø., Drogset, J.O., Granviken, F., Rø, M., Leivseth, G. (2017). Physical examination tests of the shoulder: a systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test performance. BMC Musculoskelet Disord.

Gray, M., Wallace, A., Aldridge, S. (2016). Assessment of shoulder pain for non-specialists. BMJ.

Hermans, J., Luime, J., ... Bierma-Zeinstra, S. M. (2013). Does This Patient With Shoulder Pain Have Rotator Cuff Disease? JAMA. 

Jain, N. B., Wilcox, R. B., Katz, J. N., & Higgins, L. D. (2013). Clinical Examination of the Rotator Cuff. Pm&r.


Cherkin, D. C., Sherman, K. J., Balderson, B. H., Cook, A. J., Anderson, M. L., Hawkes, R. J., . . . Turner, J. A. (2016). Effect of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction vs Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or Usual Care on Back Pain and Functional Limitations in Adults With Chronic Low Back Pain. JAMA.

Chou, R., Deyo, R., Friedly, J., Skelly, A., Hashimoto, R., ... Brodt, E.D. (2017). Nonpharmacologic Therapies for Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review for an American College of Physicians Clinical Practice Guideline. Ann Intern Med.

Jeong, U.C., Kim, C.Y., Park, Y.H., Hwang-Bo, G., Nam, C.W. (2016). The effects of self-mobilization techniques for the sciatic nerves on physical functions and health of low back pain patients with lower limb radiating pain. J Phys Ther Sci.

Qaseem, A., Wilt, T.J., McLean, R.M., Forciea, M.A. (2017). Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians.. Noninvasive Treatments for Acute, Subacute, and Chronic Low Back Pain: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med.

Stynes, S., Konstantinou, K., Dunn, K.M. (2016). Classification of patients with low back-related leg pain: a systematic review. BMC Musculoskelet Disord.

Taxter, A.J., Chauvin, N.A., Weiss, P.F. (2014). Diagnosis and treatment of low back pain in the pediatric population. Phys Sportsmed.

Vleeming, A., Schuenke, M.D., Danneels, L., Willard, F.H. (2014). The functional coupling of the deep abdominal and paraspinal muscles: the effects of simulated paraspinal muscle contraction on force transfer to the middle and posterior layer of the thoracolumbar fascia. J Anat.

Vleeming, A., Schuenke, M. D., Masi, A. T., Carreiro, J. E., Danneels, L., & Willard, F. H. (2012). The sacroiliac joint: An overview of its anatomy, function and potential clinical implications. Journal of Anatomy.

Willard, F., Vleeming, A., Schuenke, M., Danneels, L., & Schleip, R. (2012). The thoracolumbar fascia: Anatomy, function and clinical considerations. Journal of Anatomy.


Cheatham, S.W., Kolber, M.J., Salamh, P.A. (2013). Meralgia paresthetica: a review of the literature. Int J Sports Phys Ther.

Cheatham, S.W. (2016). Extra-articular hip impingement: a narrative review of the literature. J Can Chiropr Assoc. 

Henning, P.T. (2014). The running athlete: stress fractures, osteitis pubis, and snapping hips. Sports Health.

Weber, A.E., Bedi, A., Tibor, L.M., Zaltz, I., Larson, C.M. (2015). The Hyperflexible Hip: Managing Hip Pain in the Dancer and Gymnast. Sports Health.

Wilhelm, M., Matthijs, O., Browne, K., ... Gilbert, K.K. (2017). Deformation response of the iliotibial band-tensor fascia lata complex to clinical-grade longitudinal tension loading in-vitro. Int J Sports Phys Ther.


Blazevich, A.J., Cannavan, D., ... Kay, A.D. (2014). Range of motion, neuromechanical, and architectural adaptations to plantar flexor stretch training in humans. J Appl Physiol.

Iwamoto K, Mizukami M, ... Yoshio M. (2017). Effects of friction massage of the popliteal fossa on blood flow velocity of the popliteal vein. J Phys Ther Sci.

Jayaseelan, D.J., Post, A.A., Mischke, J.J., Sault, J.D. (2017). Joint mobilization in the management of persistent insertional achilles tendinopathy. Int J Sports Phys Ther.

O'Neill, S., Watson, P.J., Barry, S. (2015). Why are eccentric exercises effective for achilles tendinopathy? Int J Sports Phys Ther.

O'Neill, S., Watson, P.J., Barry, S. (2016). A delphi study of risk factors for achilles tendinopathy - opinions of world tendon experts. Int J Sports Phys Ther.

Paraskevas, G., Natsis, K., Tzika, M., & Ioannidis, O. (2014). Fascial entrapment of the sural nerve and its clinical relevance. Anatomy & Cell Biology.

Terada, M., Pietrosimone, B.G., Gribble, P.A. (2013).  Therapeutic interventions for increasing ankle dorsiflexion after ankle sprain: a systematic review. J Athl Train.

Wang, J.S. (2017). Therapeutic effects of massage and electrotherapy on muscle tone, stiffness and muscle contraction following gastrocnemius muscle fatigue. J Phys Ther Sci.

General Reference Books

• A Guide to Better Movement. Todd Hargrove.
• Cure. Jo Marchant.
• The Brain That Changes Itself. Norman Doidge. 
• Touch. David Linden. 
• The Story of the Human Body. Daniel Lieberman.
• Understanding Pain. Fernando Cervero. 

Clinical Textbooks

• Manual Therapy for Musculoskeletal Pain Syndromes. Cesar Fernandez de las Pen. 
• The Oxford Textbook of Musculoskeletal Medicine. Michael Hutson. 
• Explain Pain Supercharged. David Butler. 
• Brukner & Khan’s Clinical Sports Medicine Injuries. 

Anatomy and Physiology Textbooks

• Architecture of Human Living Fascia. Jean-Claude Guimberteau. 
• Color Atlas of Human Anatomy: Locomotor System. Werner Platzer. 
• Functional Atlas of the Human Fascial System. Carla Stecco. 
• Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology. 
• Thieme Atlas of Anatomy: General Anatomy and Musculoskeletal System. Michael Schuenke. 

Peer-Reviewed Publications

• British Journal of Sports Medicine
• Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
• Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy
• Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
• The American Journal of Sports Medicine